Fluid intake helps correct electrolyte imbalance, which may stop the vomiting. Drinking fluids prevents dehydration, which is the main side effect of excessive vomiting.
- Begin with small amounts, such as small sips. Drink only clear liquids (such as clear soup broth, juice, popsicles, jello, and sports drinks).
- Avoid milk and any dairy products, which can worsen nausea and vomiting.
- After 24 hours of tolerating fluids, work up to soft foods, including gelatin, oatmeal, yogurt, and similar soft foods. If vomiting return, switch back to liquids only, and consult a physician.
Ginger may be used to control nausea and vomiting. Studies have shown it to be effective after surgery and for motion sickness. Ginger comes in gelatin capsules, tea, or candied or crystallized ginger.
Dehydration in children: Children should be given oral rehydration solutions such as Pedialyte, Rehydrate, Resol, and Rice-Lyte.
- Water, soda, tea, and fruit juice will not correctly replace fluid or electrolytes lost with the vomiting. Water may dilute electrolytes to the point where the patient suffers seizures.
- In underdeveloped nations or regions without available commercial pediatric drinks, the World Health Organization has established a field recipe for fluid rehydration: Mix 2 tablespoons of sugar (or honey) with ¼ teaspoon of table salt and ¼ teaspoon of baking soda. (Baking soda may be substituted with ¼ teaspoon of table salt.) Mix in 1 liter (1 quart) of clean or previously boiled water.
Dehydration in adults: Although adults and adolescents have a larger electrolyte reserve than children, electrolyte imbalance and dehydration may still occur as fluid is lost through vomiting.
- Initially, adults should eat ice chips and clear, non-caffeinated, non-dairy liquids such as sports drinks, ginger ale, fruit juices, and Kool-Aid or other commercial drink mixes.
- After 24 hours of fluid diet without vomiting, begin a soft-bland solid diet such as the BRAT diet: bananas, rice, applesauce without sugar, toast, pasta, and potatoes.
- Fluids are given by mouth if the patient can keep them down, or through a vein into the bloodstream. The IV route is a common way to give fluids back to the body in moderate to severe dehydration.
- Treatment will also be given for the specific cause, if found.
Vomiting is common symptom that accompany many diseases and conditions. Problems with vomiting is related to the cause. vomiting from motion sickness, seasickness, food poisoning, or cancer therapy can result in loss of water and electrolytes, which can lead to dehydration.
- Vomiting is emptying the stomach as a result of strong gagging and retching that leads to throwing up. The stomach’s contents are forcefully expelled through the mouth.
- Vomiting can come in waves as the natural movement (muscle contractions of the digestive system known as peristalses) is reversed, and involuntary contractions in the walls of the stomach and esophagus force the stomach contents out.
- Sometimes coughing or spitting up mucus from the lungs is confused with vomiting. Vomiting can only come from the stomach.
- Retching is the reverse movement (peristalsis) of the stomach and esophagus without vomiting. Sometimes this is called the dry heaves.
What Causes Vomiting?
Vomiting is actually a reflex triggered by a signal from the brain.
The signal to vomit can result from several stimuli such as smells, taste, various illnesses, emotions (such as fear), pain, injury, infection, food irritation, dizziness, motion, and other changes in the body, specifically these:
- Eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia)
- Food poisoning
- Certain viral infections
- Motion sickness (car sickness, seasickness)
- Vertigo (the sensation that the room is spinning around)
- Head injuries (such as a concussion or bleeding injury)
- Gallbladder disease
- Migraine (a severe form of headache)
- Brain tumors
- Brain infections (such as meningitis)
- Hydrocephalus (too much fluid in the brain)
- Side effects of anesthesia used for surgery
- Stomach problems such as blockage (pyloric obstruction, a condition that causes forceful spitting up in infants)
- Bleeding into the stomach from different causes
- Infection, irritation, or blockage of the intestines
- Low or high body chemicals and minerals
- Presence of toxins in the body
- Excessive alcohol intake
- Alcohol from beer, wine, and liquor is turned into a chemical (acetaldehyde), which results in the sensation of nausea that is felt the next morning, known as a “hangover”
vomiting is common side effect of some medications.Some medicines such as those used in cancer treatment (chemotherapy), antibiotics like erythomycin, and strong pain killers are well known to cause vomiting.